Theory behind changing jobs in an professional field......

18/11/2011 18:30

Changing careers is never easy. Half the world thinks you've lost your mind, headhunters say you'll never work again and your mother-in-law steps up the old, "I told you so" routine. But for many burned-out, bored or multitalented folks who are sitting on skills they're not getting a chance to use, changing fields is the only way to keep from losing their marbles.

Regardless of your career change strategy, never make these 10 mistakes

1. Don't look for a job in another field without some intense introspection.
Nothing is worse than leaping before you look. Make sure you're not escaping to a field that fits you just as poorly as your last. Check out these self-assessment articles.
Get thorough information about the fields you're considering by networking, reading and doing online research. Having informational interviews with alumni from your college, colleagues, friends or family is a fun way to get the scoop on different fields.

2. Don't look for "hot" fields unless they're a good fit for you.
You wouldn't try to squeeze into your skinny cousin's suit, so why try a field because it works for him? People who are trying to help you will come along and do the equivalent of whispering "plastics" in your ear. Instead of jumping at their suggestions, take time to consider your options. Decide what you really want to do. When you enter a field just because it's hot, burnout isn't far behind.

3. Don't go into a field because your friend is doing well in it.
Get thorough information about the fields you're considering by networking, reading and doing online research. Having informational interviews with alumni from your college, colleagues, friends or family is a fun way to get the scoop on different fields.

4. Don't stick to possibilities you already know about.
Stretch your perception of what might work for you. Read some job profiles and explore career fields you learn about from self-assessment exercises.

5. Don't let money be the deciding factor.
There's not enough money in the world to make you happy if your job doesn't suit you. Workplace dissatisfaction and stress is the number-one health problem for working adults. This is particularly true for career changers, who often earn less until they get their sea legs in a different field.

6. Don't keep your dissatisfaction to yourself or try to make the switch alone.
This is the time to talk to people (probably not your boss just yet). Friends, family and colleagues need to know what's going on so they can help you tap into those 90-plus percent of jobs that aren't advertised until somebody has them all sewn up.

7. Don't go back to school to get retreaded unless you've done some test drives in the new field.
You're never too old for an internship, a volunteer experience or trying your hand at a contract assignment in a new field. There are lots of ways to get experience that won't cost you anything except your time. A new degree may or may not make the world sit up and take notice. Be very sure where you want to go before you put yourself through the pain and debt of another degree program.

8. Be careful when using placement agencies or search firms.
Do some research to be sure to find a good match. Ask those who work in the field you're trying to get into or other successful career changers for suggestions. Try to find a firm that knows how to be creative when placing career changers -- not one that solely focuses on moving people up the ladder in the same field.

9. Don't go to a career counsellor or a career transitions agency expecting they can tell you which field to enter.
Career advisors are facilitators, and they'll follow your lead. They can help ferret out your long-buried dreams and talents, but you'll have to do the research and the decision making by yourself. Anyone who promises to tell you what to do is dangerous.

10. Don't expect to switch overnight.
A thorough career change usually will take a minimum of six months to pull off, and the time frequently stretches to a year or more. Changing fields is one of the most invigorating things you can do. It's like experiencing youth all over again, except with the wisdom of whatever age you are now.

devloping of project in windows environment using NetBeans ide 6.9.1

22/10/2011 15:19

In short, the requirements for window management have become quite complex and can only be met by means of an external docking framework, otherwise all these various concerns would need to be coded (and debugged, tested, and maintained) by hand. The NetBeans Platform 6.9 provides all of these features via its docking framework, known as the NetBeans Window System. It also provides an APi to let you programmatically access the Window System. Together, the Window System and its APifulfill all the requirements described above, letting you concentrate on your domain knowledge and business logic rather than on the work of creating a custom window management facility for each of your applications.

NetBeans ide will help for devloping the projects like using the languages java,javascript,ejb,ajax,ruby and other can help you to devlop your project easily and it will more user friendly in compare to other ide in the market.


                                                                                                                                                                 Thanx for reading my article

                                                                                                                                                                 With warm regards

                                                                                                                                                               (  Debasish mishra)






Patalishreekhetra-an eminent place of Lord jagannath in sonepur

21/10/2011 20:52

Patali shreekhetra is one of the significant historical old vishnu temple, also a holy shrines associated  with Buddhism, Vaishnavism and Saktism. It’s very famous place or Odisha. This place is declared as a turist place by OTDC,Odisha.
        This temple is located at the foot of Trikut Hill at Kotsamlai in the Birmaharajpur Subdivision of Subarnapur District, which is situated just 23 km far from the head quater of Subarnapur,Odisha.The spectacular topography of the region speaks volumes of its proud-past. No wonder, it assigns the seal of affirmation to the literacy, epigraphic, numismatic and traditional accounts relating to the “Secret- abode” of Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra in the impenetrable caves of the Trikut for a period of 144 years.
History :-
                       As per the narration of Madalapanji, Sovanadeva, the King of Orissa fled from the city with the images of Lord Jagannath, Balabhadra and Devi Subhadra during the Raktavahu invasion and reached his western frontier in Sonepur and buried the images at a place called Sonepur-Gopali, and that after a lapse of 144 years, Yayati Keshari of Somavamsi dynasty got the images dugout, made new images, built new temple at Puri and enshrined them there.
How it became famous:-
                  On this score, it is naturally a matter of immense pride for the people of Subarnapur district that the Temple  Administration, Jagannath Temple, Puri extended official recognisation to the “Patali Shrikhetra “ on February 20, 2007 under the captainship of Sri Suresh Chandra Mahapatra, IAS, the Chief Temple Administrator and R.D.C, Central division. Further, they proposed for the setting up of positive and cordial link between Srikhetra and Patali Srikhetra in letter and spirit. Subsequently Archeological Survey of India team led by   Dr. Dimiri and State Archeology led by Dr B.K. Ratha in the company of State Architect Mr Beura paid a visit and testified the linkage of Patali Srikhetra with Srikhetra and also found archeological properties of  pre-historic importance.
                         Apart from the facts relating to Vaishnavism, the said site also bears indispensable imprints of Vajrayanism and Sahajajana Buddhism which flourished in this tract under the guidance of the Philosopher–King  Indrabhuti of Sambalaka i.e sambalpur and Lakhmikara of Subarnapur. It was king Indrabhuti, who inaugurated the tradition of worshiping Lord Jagannath as the infallible incarnation of Buddha. This theory includes the historians to believe that the Jagannath Culture originated from Vajrayanism. In addition, there is still a novel version well circulated in and around Kotsomalai that the oldest Shrines of the Goddess Stambheswari and that of Jagannath Trinity located in the heart of the village indicate the Siva-Sakti co-relation. In fact, these shrines need immediate protection for the sake of preserving the unique legacy.
Last but not the least, the monastery of the great Saint and poet Baba Chandramani Das located at Baghapali at the opposite end of the Trikut Hill and nearby Kotsamlai spontaneously steals the glances of the onlookers and communicates a message of intellectual and spiritual fraternity.

How to Reach:-

  • By Bus:- 280 km far from Bhubaneswar, Bus root will be from Bhubaneswar via Nayagarh, Daspalla, and Baud, 300 km far via Dhenkanal and Anugul,Kotasamalai is 23 KM away from Sonepur in North.,

  • By Train:- 280 km far from this place from nearest railway station Bhubaneswar.Bhubaneswar (Train) to   Sambalpur by Train and from Sambalpur to Sonepur  by Bus.

Famous for :-

  • Anicient Old Vishnu temple,

  • Rath yatra.

  • one of best Trekking place of subarnpur.

  • Best for Picnic .

pre knowledege required to do complete java courses

19/10/2011 22:17


1.oops feature

2.exception handling


4.Collection framework





4.Knowlwdwge about different server(Weblogic,Tomcat minimum)


"knowledege of jdbc is required"


"Knowledege of servlwts and jsp is required"


"Knowlwdege of framework,after completion of struts join"


"Knowlwdege about Html,Javascript,Ejb,Ajax is required

                                                                                                                                                     Thanx for reading my article

                                                                                                                                                     Debasish mishra


important faq in c

12/10/2011 22:08

C- Questions

  1. What does static variable mean?

  2. What is a pointer?

  3. What is a structure?

  4. What are the differences between structures and arrays?

  5. In header files whether functions are declared or defined?

  6. What are the differences between malloc() and calloc()?

  7. What are macros? what are its advantages and disadvantages?

  8. Difference between pass by reference and pass by value?

  9. What is static identifier?

  10. Where are the auto variables stored?

  11. Where does global, static, local, register variables, free memory and C Program instructions get stored?

  12. Difference between arrays and linked list?

  13. What are enumerations?

  14. Describe about storage allocation and scope of global, extern, static, local and register variables?

  15. What are register variables? What are the advantage of using register variables?

  16. What is the use of typedef?

  17. Can we specify variable field width in a scanf() format string? If possible how?

  18. Out of fgets() and gets() which function is safe to use and why?

  19. Difference between strdup and strcpy?

  20. What is recursion?

  21. Differentiate between a for loop and a while loop? What are it uses?

  22. What are the different storage classes in C?

  23. Write down the equivalent pointer expression for referring the same element a[i][j][k][l]?

  24. What is difference between Structure and Unions?

  25. What the advantages of using Unions?

  26. What are the advantages of using pointers in a program?

  27. What is the difference between Strings and Arrays?

  28. In a header file whether functions are declared or defined?

  29. What is a far pointer? where we use it?

  30. How will you declare an array of three function pointers where each function receives two ints and returns a float?

  31. what is a NULL Pointer? Whether it is same as an uninitialized pointer?

  32. What is a NULL Macro? What is the difference between a NULL Pointer and a NULL Macro?

  33. What does the error 'Null Pointer Assignment' mean and what causes this error?

  34. What is near, far and huge pointers? How many bytes are occupied by them?

  35. How would you obtain segment and offset addresses from a far address of a memory location?

  36. Are the expressions arr and &arr same for an array of integers?

  37. Does mentioning the array name gives the base address in all the contexts?

  38. Explain one method to process an entire string as one unit?

  39. What is the similarity between a Structure, Union and enumeration?

  40. Can a Structure contain a Pointer to itself?

  41. How can we check whether the contents of two structure variables are same or not?

  42. How are Structure passing and returning implemented by the complier?

  43. How can we read/write Structures from/to data files?

  44. What is the difference between an enumeration and a set of pre-processor # defines?

  45. what do the 'c' and 'v' in argc and argv stand for?

  46. Are the variables argc and argv are local to main?

  47. What is the maximum combined length of command line arguments including the space between adjacent arguments?

  48. If we want that any wildcard characters in the command line arguments should be appropriately expanded, are we required to make any special provision? If yes, which?

  49. Does there exist any way to make the command line arguments available to other functions without passing them as arguments to the function?

  50. What are bit fields? What is the use of bit fields in a Structure declaration?

  51. To which numbering system can the binary number 1101100100111100 be easily converted to?

  52. Which bit wise operator is suitable for checking whether a particular bit is on or off?

  53. Which bit wise operator is suitable for turning off a particular bit in a number?

  54. Which bit wise operator is suitable for putting on a particular bit in a number?

  55. Which bit wise operator is suitable for checking whether a particular bit is on or off?

  56. which one is equivalent to multiplying by 2:Left shifting a number by 1 or Left shifting an unsigned int or char by 1?

  57. Write a program to compare two strings without using the strcmp() function.

  58. Write a program to concatenate two strings.

  59. Write a program to interchange 2 variables without using the third one.

  60. Write programs for String Reversal & Palindrome check

  61. Write a program to find the Factorial of a number

  62. Write a program to generate the Fibinocci Series

  63. Write a program which employs Recursion

  64. Write a program which uses Command Line Arguments

  65. Write a program which uses functions like strcmp(), strcpy()? etc

  66. What are the advantages of using typedef in a program?

  67. How would you dynamically allocate a one-dimensional and two-dimensional array of integers?

  68. How can you increase the size of a dynamically allocated array?

  69. How can you increase the size of a statically allocated array?

  70. When reallocating memory if any other pointers point into the same piece of memory do you have to readjust these other pointers or do they get readjusted automatically?

  71. Which function should be used to free the memory allocated by calloc()?

  72. How much maximum can you allocate in a single call to malloc()?

  73. Can you dynamically allocate arrays in expanded memory?

  74. What is object file? How can you access object file?

  75. Which header file should you include if you are to develop a function which can accept variable number of arguments?

  76. Can you write a function similar to printf()?

  77. How can a called function determine the number of arguments that have been passed to it?

  78. Can there be at least some solution to determine the number of arguments passed to a variable argument list function?

  79. How do you declare the following:

  80. An array of three pointers to chars

  81. An array of three char pointers

  82. A pointer to array of three chars

  83. A pointer to function which receives an int pointer and returns a float pointer

  84. A pointer to a function which receives nothing and returns nothing

  85. What do the functions atoi(), itoa() and gcvt() do?

  86. Does there exist any other function which can be used to convert an integer or a float to a string?

  87. How would you use qsort() function to sort an array of structures?

  88. How would you use qsort() function to sort the name stored in an array of pointers to string?

  89. How would you use bsearch() function to search a name stored in array of pointers to string?

  90. How would you use the functions sin(), pow(), sqrt()?

  91. How would you use the functions memcpy(), memset(), memmove()?

  92. How would you use the functions fseek(), freed(), fwrite() and ftell()?

  93. How would you obtain the current time and difference between two times?

  94. How would you use the functions randomize() and random()?

  95. How would you implement a substr() function that extracts a sub string from a given string?

  96. What is the difference between the functions rand(), random(), srand() and randomize()?

  97. What is the difference between the functions memmove() and memcpy()?

  98. How do you print a string on the printer?

  99. Can you use the function fprintf() to display the output on the screen?









  1. What is a class?

  2. What is an object?

  3. What is the difference between an object and a class?

  4. What is the difference between class and structure?

  5. What is public, protected, private?

  6. What are virtual functions?

  7. What is friend function?

  8. What is a scope resolution operator?

  9. What do you mean by inheritance?

  10. What is abstraction?

  11. What is polymorphism? Explain with an example.

  12. What is encapsulation?

  13. What do you mean by binding of data and functions?

  14. What is function overloading and operator overloading?

  15. What is virtual class and friend class?

  16. What do you mean by inline function?

  17. What do you mean by public, private, protected and friendly?

  18. When is an object created and what is its lifetime?

  19. What do you mean by multiple inheritance and multilevel inheritance? Differentiate between them.

  20. Difference between realloc() and free?

  21. What is a template?

  22. What are the main differences between procedure oriented languages and object oriented languages?

  23. What is R T T I ?

  24. What are generic functions and generic classes?

  25. What is namespace?

  26. What is the difference between pass by reference and pass by value?

  27. Why do we use virtual functions?

  28. What do you mean by pure virtual functions?

  29. What are virtual classes?

  30. Does c++ support multilevel and multiple inheritance?

  31. What are the advantages of inheritance?

  32. When is a memory allocated to a class?

  33. What is the difference between declaration and definition?

  34. What is virtual constructors/destructors?

  35. In c++ there is only virtual destructors, no constructors. Why?

  36. What is late bound function call and early bound function call? Differentiate.

  37. How is exception handling carried out in c++?

  38. When will a constructor executed?

  39. What is Dynamic Polymorphism?

  40. Write a macro for swapping integers.














  1. What is a data structure?

  2. What does abstract data type means?

  3. Evaluate the following prefix expression " ++ 26 + - 1324" (Similar types can be asked)

  4. Convert the following infix expression to post fix notation ((a+2)*(b+4)) -1 (Similar types can be asked)

  5. How is it possible to insert different type of elements in stack?

  6. Stack can be described as a pointer. Explain.

  7. Write a Binary Search program

  8. Write programs for Bubble Sort, Quick sort

  9. Explain about the types of linked lists

  10. How would you sort a linked list?

  11. Write the programs for Linked List (Insertion and Deletion) operations

  12. What data structure would you mostly likely see in a non recursive implementation of a recursive algorithm?

  13. What do you mean by Base case, Recursive case, Binding Time, Run-Time Stack and Tail Recursion?

  14. Explain quick sort and merge sort algorithms and derive the time-constraint relation for these.

  15. Explain binary searching, Fibinocci search.

  16. What is the maximum total number of nodes in a tree that has N levels? Note that the root is level (zero)

  17. How many different binary trees and binary search trees can be made from three nodes that contain the key values 1, 2 & 3?

  18. A list is ordered from smaller to largest when a sort is called. Which sort would take the longest time to execute?

  19. A list is ordered from smaller to largest when a sort is called. Which sort would take the shortest time to execute?

  20. When will you sort an array of pointers to list elements, rather than sorting the elements themselves?

  21. The element being searched for is not found in an array of 100 elements. What is the average number of comparisons needed in a sequential search to determine that the element is not there, if the elements are completely unordered?

  22. What is the average number of comparisons needed in a sequential search to determine the position of an element in an array of 100 elements, if the elements are ordered from largest to smallest?

  23. Which sort show the best average behavior?

  24. What is the average number of comparisons in a sequential search?

  25. Which data structure is needed to convert infix notations to post fix notations?

  26. What do you mean by:

  27. Syntax Error

  28. Logical Error

  29. Runtime Error

  30. How can you correct these errors?

  31. In which data structure, elements can be added or removed at either end, but not in the middle?

  32. How will inorder, preorder and postorder traversals print the elements of a tree?

  33. Parenthesis are never needed in prefix or postfix expressions. Why?

  34. Which one is faster? A binary search of an orderd set of elements in an array or a sequential search of the elements.








  1. What is the difference between an Abstract class and Interface?

  2. What is user defined exception?

  3. What do you know about the garbage collector?

  4. What is the difference between java and c++?

  5. In an HTML form I have a button which makes us to open another page in 15 seconds. How will you do that?

  6. What is the difference between process and threads?

  7. What is update method called?

  8. Have you ever used HashTable and Directory?

  9. What are statements in Java?

  10. What is a JAR file?

  11. What is JNI?

  12. What is the base class for all swing components?

  13. What is JFC?

  14. What is the difference between AWT and Swing?

  15. Considering notepad/IE or any other thing as process, What will happen if you start notepad or IE 3 times ? Where three processes are started or three threads are started?

  16. How does thread synchronization occur in a monitor?

  17. Is there any tag in HTML to upload and download files?

  18. Why do you canvas?

  19. How can you know about drivers and database information ?

  20. What is serialization?

  21. Can you load the server object dynamically? If so what are the 3 major steps involved in it?

  22. What is the layout for toolbar?

  23. What is the difference between Grid and Gridbaglayout?

  24. How will you add panel to a frame?

  25. Where are the card layouts used?

  26. What is the corresponding layout for card in swing?

  27. What is light weight component?

  28. Can you run the product development on all operating systems?

  29. What are the benefits if Swing over AWT?

  30. How can two threads be made to communicate with each other?

  31. What are the files generated after using IDL to java compiler?

  32. What is the protocol used by server and client?

  33. What is the functionability stubs and skeletons?

  34. What is the mapping mechanism used by java to identify IDL language?

  35. What is serializable interface?

  36. What is the use of interface?

  37. Why is java not fully objective oriented?

  38. Why does java not support multiple inheritance?

  39. What is the root class for all java classes?

  40. What is polymorphism?

  41. Suppose if we have a variable 'I' in run method, if I can create one or more thread each thread will occupy a separate copy or same variable will be shared?

  42. What are virtual functions?

  43. Write down how will you create a Binary tree?

  44. What are the traverses in binary tree?

  45. Write a program for recursive traverse?

  46. What are session variable in servlets?

  47. What is client server computing?

  48. What is constructor and virtual function? Can we call a virtual function in a constructor?

  49. Why do we use oops concepts? What is its advantage?

  50. What is middleware? What is the functionality of web server?

  51. Why is java not 100% pure oops?

  52. When will you use an interface and abstract class?

  53. What is the exact difference in between Unicast and Multicast object? Where will it be used?

  54. What is the main functionality of the remote reference layer?

  55. How do you download stubs from Remote place?

  56. I want to store more than 10 objects in a remote server? Which methodology will follow?

  57. What is the main functionality of Prepared Statement?

  58. What is meant by Static query and Dynamic query?

  59. What are Normalization Rules? Define Normalization?

  60. What is meant by Servelet? What are the parameters of service method?

  61. What is meant by Session? Explain something about HTTP Session Class?

  62. In a container there are 5 components. I want to display all the component names, how will you do that?

  63. Why there are some null interface in JAVA? What does it mean? Give some null interface in JAVA?

  64. Tell some latest versions in JAVA related areas?

  65. What is meant by class loader? How many types are there? When will we use them?

  66. What is meant by flickering?

  67. What is meant by distributed application? Why are we using that in our application?

  68. What is the functionality of the stub?

  69. Explain about version control?

  70. Explain 2-tier and 3-tier architecture?

  71. What is the role of Web Server?

  72. How can we do validation of the fields in a project?

  73. What is meant by cookies? Explain the main features?

  74. Why java is considered as platform independent?

  75. What are the advantages of java over C++?

  76. How java can be connected to a database?

  77. What is thread?

  78. What is difference between Process and Thread?

  79. Does java support multiple inheritance? if not, what is the solution?

  80. What are abstract classes?

  81. What is an interface?

  82. What is the difference abstract class and interface?

  83. What are adapter classes?

  84. what is meant wrapper classes?

  85. What are JVM.JRE, J2EE, JNI?

  86. What are swing components?

  87. What do you mean by light weight and heavy weight components?

  88. What is meant by function overloading and function overriding?

  89. Does java support function overloading, pointers, structures, unions or linked lists?

  90. What do you mean by multithreading?

  91. What are byte codes?

  92. What are streams?

  93. What is user defined exception?

  94. In an HTML page form I have one button which makes us to open a new page in 15 seconds. How will you do that?








Advanced JAVA questions

  1. What is RMI?

  2. Explain about RMI Architecture?

  3. What are Servelets?

  4. What is the use of servlets?

  5. Explain RMI Architecture?

  6. How will you pass values from HTML page to the servlet?

  7. How do you load an image in a Servelet?

  8. What is purpose of applet programming?

  9. How will you communicate between two applets?

  10. What IS the difference between Servelets and Applets?

  11. How do you communicate in between Applets and Servlets?

  12. What is the difference between applet and application?

  13. What is the difference between CGI and Servlet?

  14. In the servlets, we are having a web page that is invoking servlets ,username and password? which is checks in database? Suppose the second page also if we want to verify the same information whether it will connect to the database or it will be used previous information?

  15. What are the difference between RMI and Servelets?

  16. How will you call an Applet using Java Script Function?

  17. How can you push data from an Applet to a Servlet?

  18. What are 4 drivers available in JDBC? At what situation are four of the drivers used?

  19. If you are truncated using JDBC , how can you that how much data is truncated?

  20. How will you perform truncation using JDBC?

  21. What is the latest version of JDBC? What are the new features added in that?

  22. What is the difference between RMI registry and OS Agent? To a server method, the client wants to send a value 20, with this value exceeds to 20 a message should be sent to the client . What will you do for achieving this?

  23. How do you invoke a Servelet? What is the difference between doPost method and doGet method?

  24. What is difference between the HTTP Servelet and Generic Servelet? Explain about their methods and parameters?

  25. Can we use threads in Servelets?

  26. Write a program on RMI and JDBC using Stored Procedure?

  27. How do you swing an applet?

  28. How will you pass parameters in RMI? Why do you serialize?

  29. In RMI ,server object is first loaded into memory and then the stub reference is sent to the client. true or false?

  30. Suppose server object not loaded into the memory and the client request for it. What will happen?

  31. What is the web server used for running the servelets?

  32. What is Servlet API used for connecting database?

  33. What is bean? Where can it be used?

  34. What is the difference between java class and bean?

  35. Can we sent objects using Sockets?

  36. What is the RMI and Socket?

  37. What is CORBA?

  38. Can you modify an object in corba?

  39. What is RMI and what are the services in RMI?

  40. What are the difference between RMI and CORBA?

  41. How will you initialize an Applet?

  42. What is the order of method invocation in an Applet?

  43. What is ODBC and JDBC? How do you connect the Database?

  44. What do you mean by Socket Programming?

  45. What is difference between Generic Servlet and HTTP Servelet?

  46. What you mean by COM and DCOM?

  47. what is e-commerce?

Operating System Questions

  1. What are the basic functions of an operating system?

  2. Explain briefly about, processor, assembler, compiler, loader, linker and the functions executed by them.

  3. What are the difference phases of software development? Explain briefly?

  4. Differentiate between RAM and ROM?

  5. What is DRAM? In which form does it store data?

  6. What is cache memory?

  7. What is hard disk and what is its purpose?

  8. Differentiate between Complier and Interpreter?

  9. What are the different tasks of Lexical analysis?

  10. What are the different functions of Syntax phase, Sheduler?

  11. What are the main difference between Micro-Controller and Micro- Processor?

  12. Describe different job scheduling in operating systems.

  13. What is a Real-Time System ?

  14. What is the difference between Hard and Soft real-time systems ?

  15. What is a mission critical system ?

  16. What is the important aspect of a real-time system ?

  17. If two processes which shares same system memory and system clock in a distributed system, What is it called?

  18. What is the state of the processor, when a process is waiting for some event to occur?

  19. What do you mean by deadlock?

  20. Explain the difference between microkernel and macro kernel.

  21. Give an example of microkernel.

  22. When would you choose bottom up methodology?

  23. When would you choose top down methodology?

  24. Write a small dc shell script to find number of FF in the design.

  25. Why paging is used ?

  26. Which is the best page replacement algorithm and Why? How much time is spent usually in each phases and why?

  27. Difference between Primary storage and secondary storage?

  28. What is multi tasking, multi programming, multi threading?

  29. Difference between multi threading and multi tasking?

  30. What is software life cycle?

  31. Demand paging, page faults, replacement algorithms, thrashing, etc.

  32. Explain about paged segmentation and segment paging

  33. While running DOS on a PC, which command would be used to duplicate the entire diskette?


















  1. Which type of architecture 8085 has?

  2. How many memory locations can be addressed by a microprocessor with 14 address lines?

  3. 8085 is how many bit microprocessor?

  4. Why is data bus bi-directional?

  5. What is the function of accumulator?

  6. What is flag, bus?

  7. What are tri-state devices and why they are essential in a bus oriented system?

  8. Why are program counter and stack pointer 16-bit registers?

  9. What does it mean by embedded system?

  10. What are the different addressing modes in 8085?

  11. What is the difference between MOV and MVI?

  12. What are the functions of RIM, SIM, IN?

  13. What is the immediate addressing mode?

  14. What are the different flags in 8085?

  15. What happens during DMA transfer?

  16. What do you mean by wait state? What is its need?

  17. What is PSW?

  18. What is ALE? Explain the functions of ALE in 8085.

  19. What is a program counter? What is its use?

  20. What is an interrupt?

  21. Which line will be activated when an output device require attention from CPU?



  1. What is meant by D-FF?

  2. What is the basic difference between Latches and Flip flops?

  3. What is a multiplexer?

  4. How can you convert an SR Flip-flop to a JK Flip-flop?

  5. How can you convert an JK Flip-flop to a D Flip-flop?

  6. What is Race-around problem? How can you rectify it?

  7. Which semiconductor device is used as a voltage regulator and why?

  8. What do you mean by an ideal voltage source?

  9. What do you mean by zener breakdown and avalanche breakdown?

  10. What are the different types of filters?

  11. What is the need of filtering ideal response of filters and actual response of filters?

  12. What is sampling theorem?

  13. What is impulse response?

  14. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of FIR filters compared to IIR counterparts.

  15. What is CMRR? Explain briefly.

  16. What do you mean by half-duplex and full-duplex communication? Explain briefly.

  17. Which range of signals are used for terrestrial transmission?

  18. What is the need for modulation?

  19. Which type of modulation is used in TV transmission?

  20. Why we use vestigial side band (VSB-C3F) transmission for picture?

  21. When transmitting digital signals is it necessary to transmit some harmonics in addition to fundamental frequency?

  22. For asynchronous transmission, is it necessary to supply some synchronizing pulses additionally or to supply or to supply start and stop bit?

  23. BPFSK is more efficient than BFSK in presence of noise. Why?

  24. What is meant by pre-emphasis and de-emphasis?

  25. What do you mean by 3 dB cutoff frequency? Why is it 3 dB, not 1 dB?

  26. What do you mean by ASCII, EBCDIC?

Tree (descriptive set theory)

12/10/2011 15:25

In descriptive set theory, a tree on a set X is a set of finite sequences of elements of X that is closed under initial segments.

More formally, it is a subset T of X < ω, such that if

\langle x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_{n-1}\rangle \in T

and 0\le m<n,


\langle x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_{m-1}\rangle \in T.

In particular, every nonempty tree contains the empty sequence.

A branch through T is an infinite sequence

\vec x\in X^{\omega} of elements of X

such that, for every natural number n,

\vec x|n\in T,

where \vec x|n denotes the sequence of the first n elements of \vec x. The set of all branches through T is denoted [T] and called the body of the tree T.

A tree that has no branches is called wellfounded; a tree with at least one branch is illfounded.

A node (that is, element) of T is terminal if there is no node of T properly extending it; that is, \langle x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_{n-1}\rangle \in T is terminal if there is no element x of X such that that \langle x_0,x_1,\ldots,x_{n-1},x\rangle \in T. A tree with no terminal nodes is called pruned.

If we equip Xω with the product topology (treating X as a discrete space), then every closed subset of Xω is of the form [T] for some pruned tree T (namely, T:= \{ \vec x|n: n \in \omega, x\in X\}). Conversely, every set [T] is closed.

Frequently trees on cartesian products X\times Y are considered. In this case, by convention, the set (X\times Y)^{\omega} is identified in the natural way with a subset of X^{\omega}\times Y^{\omega}, and [T] is considered as a subset of X^{\omega}\times Y^{\omega}. We may then form the projection of [T],

p[T]=\{\vec x\in X^{\omega} | (\exists \vec y\in Y^{\omega})\langle \vec x,\vec y\rangle \in [T]\}

Every tree in the sense described here is also a tree in the wider sense, i.e., the pair (T, <), where < is defined by

x<yx is a proper initial segment of y,

is a partial order in which each initial segment is well-ordered. The height of each sequence x is then its length, and hence finite.

Conversely, every partial order (T, <) where each initial segment { y: y < x0 } is well-ordered is isomorphic to a tree described here, assuming that all elements have finite height.

                                                                                                                                                               Thanks for reading my article

                                                                                                                                                                With warm regards

                                                                                                                                                                 Debasish mishra


Late-2000s financial crisis

12/10/2011 15:15

The late-2000s financial crisis (often called the Global Recession, Global Financial Crisis or the Credit Crunch) is considered by many economists to be the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.It resulted in the collapse of large financial institutions, the bailout of banks by national governments, and downturns in stock markets around the world. In many areas, the housing market had also suffered, resulting in numerous evictions, foreclosures and prolonged vacancies. It contributed to the failure of key businesses, declines in consumer wealth estimated in the trillions of U.S. dollars, and a significant decline in economic activity, leading to a severe global economic recession in 2008.

The financial crisis was triggered by a liquidity shortfall in the United States banking system in 2008.The collapse of the U.S. housing bubble, which peaked in 2007, caused the values of securities tied to U.S. real estate pricing to plummet, damaging financial institutions globally.Questions regarding bank solvency, declines in credit availability and damaged investor confidence had an impact on global stock markets, where securities suffered large losses during 2008 and early 2009. Economies worldwide slowed during this period, as credit tightened and international trade declined.Governments and central banks responded with unprecedented fiscal stimulus, monetary policy expansion and institutional bailouts. Although there have been aftershocks, the financial crisis itself ended sometime between late-2008 and mid-2009.

While many causes for the financial crisis have been suggested, with varying weight assigned by experts, the United States Senate issuing the Levin–Coburn Report found “that the crisis was not a natural disaster, but the result of high risk, complex financial products; undisclosed conflicts of interest; and the failure of regulators, the credit rating agencies, and the market itself to rein in the excesses of Wall Street.” Critics argued that credit rating agencies and investors failed to accurately price the risk involved with mortgage-related financial products, and that governments did not adjust their regulatory practices to address 21st-century financial markets. The 1999 repeal of the Glass–Steagall Act  of 1933 effectively removed the separation that previously existed between Wall Street investment banks and depository banks. In response to the financial crisis, both market-based and regulatory solutions have been implemented or are under consideration.

                                                                                                                                                                         Thanks for reading my article

                                                                                                                                                                          With warm regards

                                                                                                                                                                           Debasish mishra

turmoil situation of team india...

28/09/2011 15:15

as we know team india is going to loose all his identity in near future ,lossed almost all the games in england is coming to india and india is now concentrating on t-20 matches and also the upcoming ipl where they can get more money,rather then playing for the country.when players are playing t-20 matches they are physicaly good and when it comes to palying for india ,palyers are suffering from injury,if they not want to play for india any more,then go for retirement ,many young fellows are there for playing for team india.


                                                                            Thanks for reading my article

                                                                            Debasish mishra


Great thought by some great people

27/09/2011 16:20

HITLER : "If you win you need not explain. But if you lose you should not be there to explain"

BONNIE BLAIR : "Winning does'nt always mean being first.Winning means you are doing better than you have done before"

CHARLES : "Never break four things in your life-Trust, Promise, Relation and Heart. Because when they break they dont make noise but pains a lot"

LEO TOLSTOY : "Everyone thinks of changing the world, but no one thinks of changing himself"

MOTHER TERESA : "If you start judging people, you will be having no time to love them."
"If we cannot love the person whom we see, then how come we love god whom we cannot see"

SWAMI VIVEKANANDA : "In a day when you dont come accross any problems, you can be sure that you are travelling in a wrong path"

                                                                                                                           thanks for reading my article

                                                                                                                          Debasish mishra


Demanding of smaller state

26/09/2011 23:02

india is an democratic country and we are the second highest democratic country in the world and why we are demanding for smaller states,it is a need of our for people those who want to fullfil there demands politically rather then countrys integration or the benifit of an country by united,we have to bring change in the mindset of people,in india we are easily come with the words of the people,it is unfortunate for me to write here that 

1.People are casting their vote by taking money from political party and give their biggest power to an useless fellow.

2.all the political leaders are corrupted and raising there money in swiss bank,it must be stopped and we have to support the good people rather then bad people who are the blood eaters of the society.

3.we have to be more strong as an citizen of our country and we have to be more careful at the time of casting our vote and also we have to choose right candidate at the time of election.

i wish india is more globally and financially sound as an country and also aa an emerging economy in the a country like india where different language speaking people are there and various religion people are there and still we are united and what we will get by dividing,it is only the game plan of politically people to boost there politically agenda rather then benifit of the society,we have to stop them otherwise very soon our country will be like other countries like africa ,where people will fight for the food and also for their survival.government have to look this matter carefully rather considering their political agenda.

in india following are the states where independent states are demanded by the people.

1.Odisha----Koshal(including 13 districts and also more parts of western orissa)



4.West bengal-


6.and many more..........for this one thing a small question i want to ask "if we are 3 children of our mother,for which children ,our mother going to divide,our country is our mother and our mother is same for all,why we are going to divide?it is the need of hour we have to think abt it.....


               "WE have to think and we have to be"      

                                                                                                                                  THANKS FOR READING MY ARTICLE

                                                                                                                                             WITH WARM REGARDS

                                                                                                                                           Debasish mishra






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